The Linux OS and Linux Desktop Software | Linux in Pakistan
Linux OS

The Linux OS and Linux Desktop Software

Linux desktop systems have the Linux operating system on them and also have a Linux desktop installed on them.

As with Windows, after booting a Linux desktop system, you are at a Linux desktop.

Note: On some Linux systems, you may need to log in to the Linux desktop after booting the system (and before the Linux desktop appears). You will see what is called a GUI login prompt. This usually looks like a box in the middle of the screen where you are asked to for a Username and Password and then you click on the OK button to log in.

The Linux Kernel – The Core of the Linux OS – Linux OS Training CD / Training Online

The “core” or main component of the Linux OS is the kernel (not to be confused with Elvis’ manager – or the founder of a fast-food chicken chain). This is the compiled version of

the source code that was created by Linus Torvalds – and hundreds of other Linux programmers working together over the Internet.

The Linux kernel has a version number in the format of:

x.x.x.x

Here is an example of a kernel version number: 2.6.25.9

You can: see the latest Linux kernel version (used in ALL Linux distros), and download and compile the source code of the current Linux kernel by going to:

http://kernel.org

Linux Commands Training Tips: The version number of the kernel is the only important number to remember in relation to the version number of the Linux OS.

Linux distros have version numbers, but theyre all over the place – such as Linux version number 3.1 for one Linux distribution, Linux version number 7.4 (at the same time) for a different Linux disto, Linux version number 10.6 for a different one, and so on – and these distro version numbers only relate to a particular version of Linux, and dont relate to the kernel version number. More on this later.

The source code for the Linux kernel and its related software components is now over four million lines of text!

Linux OS Kernel Source Code – Compiled To Create the Linux OS

The Linux kernel source code is compiled to create the kernel of the Linux OS.

The compiled kernel and its supporting program files are installed on your hard disk when Linux is installed.

The kernel is the “core” (main component) of the operating system and provides many basic operating system services, such as:

  • access to the file system on the hard disk – and other devices on the system
  • accepting input, such from the keyboard and mouse
  • providing output to devices, such as the screen and printer
  • managing the memory inside and attached to the system
  • and tracking other system resources

The kernel manages all application software programs and utility software programs as processes – to provide them with basic operating-system services. Being a multitasking operating system, the kernel can run many processes at the same time. It keeps track of all processes and assigns resources, such as processor time and memory, to these processes as needed.

Linux Desktop Systems (a.k.a. Linux Workstations) – The Linux OS, Plus the Linux Desktop Software

Linux desktop systems have the Linux operating system on them and also have a Linux desktop installed on them.

As with Windows, after booting a Linux desktop system, you are at a Linux desktop.

Note: On some Linux systems, you may need to log in to the Linux desktop after booting the system (and before the Linux desktop appears). You will see what is called a GUI login prompt.

The GUI Login prompt usually looks like a box in the middle of the screen where you are asked to for a Username and Password and then you click on the OK button to log in.

The Linux desktop has all the features and functionality of the Windows GUI point-and-click desktop – and some people find the Linux desktop

far superior to the Windows desktop!

There is more than one Linux desktop that can be installed on a Linux desktop system – in fact, there are several Linux desktops – used one at a time – and two of the more popular ones are the GNOME desktop and the KDE desktop.

As with Windows, to do tasks at a Linux desktop, like run software programs and work inside of software programs, you just point and click. If you know how to work at a Windows desktop, then you know how to work at a Linux desktop!

Working at a Linux desktop and doing things like: pointing, clicking, double-clicking, dragging to select, and other GUI point-and-click tasks, are virtually identical to working at a Windows desktop.

Running Linux Commands On a Linux Desktop System

To run Linux commands when you are working at a Linux desktop system, you need to do one or more simple steps to get to the Linux command line prompt.

To get to the command line prompt and run Linux commands, you can either go to:

1. a Linux terminal

– or –

2. a Linux terminal emulation window

Notice the word window in the Linux term (phrase) terminal emulation window.